See also Google Scholar profile

ORCID: 0020-4435-6914



23. Burdfield-Steel, E., Pakkanen, H., Rojas, B., Galarza, J. A. &  Mappes, J. 2018. De novo synthesis of chemical defences in an aposematic moth. Journal of Insect Science.  Accepted.

22. Henze, M. J., Lind, O., Mappes, J., Rojas, B. and Kelber, A. 2018. An aposematic colour‐polymorphic moth seen through the eyes of conspecifics and predators ‐ sensitivity and colour discrimination in a tiger moth. Functional Ecology. DOI:10.1111/1365-2435.13100

21. Rönkä, K., De Pasqual, C., Mappes, J., Gordon, S. P. & Rojas, B.  2018. Colour alone matters: no predator generalisation among morphs of an aposematic moth. Animal Behaviour 135: 153–163DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.015 PDF


20. Rojas, B.‡, Burdfield-Steel, E.‡, Pakkanen, H., Suisto, K., Maczka, M., Schulz, S. & Mappes, J. 2017. How to fight multiple enemies: target-specific chemical defences in an aposematic moth. (‡Equal contribution). Proceedings of the Royal Society B 284: 20171424. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.1424 PDF

Featured in:  Inside ScienceDiscoverMagazinePhys.orgScience Daily.

19. Rojas, B. & Burdfield-Steel, E. Predator Defense. 2017. In: J. Vonk & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. Springer International Publishing.  DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_708-1 PDF

18. White, T. E., Rojas, B. , Mappes, J., Rautiala, P. & Kemp, D. J. 2017. Colour and luminance contrasts predict the human detection of natural stimuli in complex visual environments. Biology Letters 13: 20170375. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2017.0375 PDF

17. Nokelainen, O., Rojas, B., & Valkonen, J. Camouflage. 2017. In: T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Springer International PublishingDOI:10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2665-1  PDF

16. Rojas, B., Nokelainen, O., & Valkonen, J. Aposematism. 2017. In: T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Springer International Publishing. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2669-1  PDF


15. Rojas, B. 2016. Behavioural, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of diversity in frog colour patterns. Biological Reviews. DOI: 10.1111/brv.12269 PDF


14. Stynoski, J. L.‡, Schulte, L. M.‡ & Rojas, B.‡ 2015. Poison frogs. Quick Guide. Current Biology 25:R1026–R1028.(‡ Equal contribution) PDF

13. Rojas, B. 2015. Mind the gap: treefalls as drivers of parental tradeoffs. Ecology & Evolution. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1648 PDF

Featured in: Sciences et Avenir (France)

12. Rojas, B.‡, Gordon, S. P.‡ & Mappes, J. 2015. Frequency-dependent flight activity in the colour polymorphic wood tiger moth. Current Zoology 61:765-772. Special issue on ‘Anti-predator coloration and behavior’ (‡ Equal contribution) PDF

11. Gordon, S. P., Kokko, H., Rojas, B., Nokelainen, O. & Mappes, J. 2015. Colour polymorphism torn apart by opposing positive frequency-dependent selection, yet maintained in space. Journal of Animal Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12416 PDF

Featured in a Special Virtual Issue on Evolutionary Ecology (editor’s choice) in the Journal of Animal Ecology

10. Exnerová, A., Jezová, D., Štys, P., Doktorovová, L., Rojas, B. & Mappes, J. 2015. Different reactions to aposematic prey in 2 geographically distant populations of great tits. Behavioral Ecology 26:1361-1370. DOI 10.1093/beheco/arv086 PDF

9. Hämäläinen, L. Valkonen, J., Mappes, J. & Rojas, B. 2015. Visual illusions in predator-prey interactions: birds find moving patterned prey harder to catch. Animal Cognition 18:1059-1068. DOI 10.1007/s10071-015-0874-0 PDF

8. Rojas, B., Valkonen, J. & Nokelainen, O. 2015. Aposematism. Quick Guide. Current Biology 25:R350-R351. PDF


7. Rojas, B., Rautiala, P. & Mappes, J. 2014. Differential detectability of polymorphic warning signals under varying light environments. Behavioural Processes 109(B): 164-172. Special issue on ‘Animal Cognition in the Wild’. PDF


6. Rojas, B., Devillechabrolle, J. & Endler, J. A. 2014. Paradox lost: colour pattern and movement are associated in an aposematic frog. Biology Letters 10: 20140193. PDF

Featured in:, Science News, Daily Mail (UK), Sydney Morning Herald (Australia), Nature World News, Spektrum (Germany)France Inter.

5. Rojas, B. 2014. Strange parental decisions: fathers of the dyeing poison frog deposit their tadpoles in pools occupied by large cannibals. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68:551-559. PDF

Featured in: Science Magazine, Science Daily,, Springer Select, The Scientist magazine, Der Standard (Austria), Scinexx (Germany).


4. Rojas, B. & Endler, J. A. 2013. Sexual dimorphism and intra-populational colour pattern variation in the aposematic frog Dendrobates tinctorius. Special Issue on the ‘Evolutionary Ecology of Poison Frogs’. Evolutionary Ecology 27:739-753. PDF


3. Ringler, E., Rojas, B., Ringler, M. & Hödl, W. 2012. Characterisation of nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in the dyeing poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius (Dendrobatidae), and their cross-species utility in two other dendrobatoid species. Herpetological Journal 22: 265-267. PDF

Before 2012

2. Endler, J. A. & Rojas, B. 2009. The spatial pattern of natural selection when selection depends on experience. American Naturalist 173: E62-E78. PDF

1. Rojas, B., Amézquita, A. & Delgadillo, A. 2006. Matching and symmetry in the frequency recognition curve of the poison frog Epipedobates trivittatus. Ethology 112: 564-571. PDF


Submitted / Under Review / In revision

Rönkä, K., Mappes, J., Kiviö, R., Salokannas, J., Michalis, C. & Rojas, B. Can multiple-model mimicry explain warning signal polymorphism in the wood tiger moth, Arctia plantaginis (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)? In revision, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.

Burdfield-Steel, E., Brain, M., Rojas, B. & Mappes, J. The price of safety: food deprivation in early life influences the efficacy of chemical defence in an aposematic moth. Under review.


In preparation

Rojas, B., Ringler, M., Valkonen, J. & Endler, J. A. Bold invaders are winners: poison frogs with simpler aposematic colour patterns lead tree-fall gap invasions and have higher survival.

Rojas, B., Burdfield-Steel, E. & Mappes, J. Trade-off between chemical defence and warning signal: interaction among coloration, odour and taste

Rojas, B., Ringler, E. & Endler, J. A. Yellower females pair more frequently? Courtship and apparent lack of assortative mating in a wild population of a colour-pattern polymorphic aposematic frog.

Rojas, B., Burdfield-Steel, E., Gordon, S. P., Lindstedt, C., Nokelainen, O., Rönkä, K., Mappes, J. Multimodal aposematic signals and their potential role in mate attraction: wood tiger moths as a case study.

Rönkä, K., Valkonen, J., Nokelainen, O., Rojas, B., Gordon, S., Burdfield-Steel, E., Tasane, T. & Mappes, J. Warning signal polymorphism despite positive frequency-dependent selection.


Other publications

1. Burdfield-Steel, E. & Rojas, B. 2017. Doubling down. BIOSPHERE Magazine 29:29-36PDF